The never setting sun energy dream
the never setting sun energy dream -- prospects for the next generation of new nuclear energy for mankind
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the figure shows: how big is the structural device of thermonuclear reactor?
the figure shows the poster of the "International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor" program (ITER): "in order to have energy available for the next generation, we need thermonuclear energy."
this "sun" is not in the sky, but on the earth
since the first oil crisis, countries around the world have competed to develop energy-saving technologies, but the energy resources available to mankind are limited after all, and the main energy will be exhausted in the next few decades to more than 100 years. In the coming decades, countries around the world will inevitably have conflicts and even wars between countries in order to compete for oil resources. The recent Iraq war is the best example of competing for oil resources. At the same time, traditional energy will also bring environmental problems, such as the increase of greenhouse gases can cause climate change
radioactive material leakage accidents in nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel burial treatment will eventually bring hidden dangers to people
recently, the international thermonuclear reactor cooperation program (ITER), which is participated by China, the United States, the European Union, Japan, Russia and South Korea, has aroused people's interest again because of its final location. This thermonuclear reactor, known as the artificial sun, has not only attracted great attention because of the huge investment of 1.3 trillion yen, but also because if it can be successfully developed in the next 50 years, it will greatly change the current world energy pattern, so that mankind will have inexhaustible clean energy in the future
inspiration from the sun
the sun, hanging high in the sky, is warm and brilliant. Its eternal radiance has been a totem worshipped by our ancestors since ancient times, and it is an indelible mystery in the brain. It was not until the end of the 19th century that the opening of radiation research really led mankind to the door of the solar maze, and the discovery of nuclear fusion finally made mankind shout out the loud "open sesame"
at first, Aston, a British chemist and physicist at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, found that the mass of helium-4 was about 1% smaller than the sum of the mass of the four hydrogen atoms that make up helium when he was doing isotope research with his own spectrograph. In 1929, Atkinson of Britain and Ottoman of Austria jointly wrote an article to prove the possibility of hydrogen atom fusion into helium, and believed that the light and heat emitted by the sun for thousands of years came from this light nuclear fusion reaction
subsequent studies have confirmed that the energy emitted by the sun comes from the countless hydrogen nuclei that make up the sun. Under the ultra-high temperature and ultra-high pressure in the center of the sun, these hydrogen nuclei interact, undergo nuclear fusion, combine into heavier helium nuclei, and release huge light and heat at the same time. Therefore, scientists imagine that if the artificially controlled nuclear fusion reaction of hydrogen is realized, that is, the controlled thermonuclear reaction, then the artificial suns with inexhaustible energy can also be created on the earth
making the sun on earth is not a crazy move of science maniacs, but a necessity for human survival. Within 200 years, oil, coal and natural gas resources are in danger of being exhausted. In the second half of the 20th century, there was an upsurge in the use of nuclear energy, and various types of nuclear power plants have developed very rapidly in the world. However, at present, the principle of all nuclear power stations is to use the fission of heavy element nuclei with large atomic weight such as uranium to release huge energy. Not to mention that the nightmare of nuclear pollution caused by this type of fission power station is as shocking as the energy it creates. As far as its main raw material uranium is concerned, the earth's reserves are only enough to maintain for hundreds of years
therefore, human beings have to turn their demands to the sun again, and place the hope of finally solving the energy demand on the realization and promotion of controlled nuclear fusion, trying to build thermonuclear reactors that realize nuclear fusion by using hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritiumThe important nuclear fuel used in thermonuclear fusion is deuterium. A 1million kW nuclear fusion power station consumes only 304 kg of deuterium per year. It is measured that every liter of seawater contains 30 mg of deuterium, and the energy generated by 30 mg of deuterium fusion is equivalent to 300 liters of gasoline, that is to say, "one liter of seawater is about 300 liters of gasoline". There are 45 trillion tons of deuterium in the water of the earth, enough for human use for 6billion years
what's more valuable is that there is almost no radioactive pollution in nuclear fusion reaction. There is no need to worry about losing control and explosion. It is a truly infinite, clean, low-cost, safe and reliable new energy
the oscillating effects include: 1. The strength of the layout 2. The loosening of the contacts 3. The wear and tear of the protective data. Human beings have already realized deuterium tritium nuclear fusion - hydrogen bomb explosion, but the uncontrollable instantaneous energy release will only bring disaster to human beings, and it is extremely difficult to tame nuclear energy and make nuclear fusion serve human beings under human control. Today, people are more and more aware that the day when controlled nuclear fusion is realized is the time when we really get rid of the energy crisis
man made high temperature of hundreds of millions of degrees Celsius
nuclear fusion was discovered as early as 1938. However, it has been more than half a century since the first nuclear fission reactor was built in 1942, and the controlled fusion still has not achieved beneficial energy output
the fundamental reason for this difficulty is that the aggregation of light element nuclei is much more difficult than the division of element nuclei
both positively charged atomic nuclei attract and repel each other. When the distance between two atomic nuclei is only about 3 parts per trillion, the reported attraction force between them will be greater than the electrostatic repulsion force, and the two atomic nuclei may converge and release huge energy at the same time. What is needed to meet such conditions is a high temperature of tens of millions or even hundreds of millions of degrees Celsius
for mankind to make peaceful use of nuclear fusion, it must be a controllable fusion process. The more feasible control method is to control the addition rate and amount of nuclear fusion fuel each time, so that the nuclear fusion reaction can be carried out continuously or rhythmically on a certain scale. Therefore, the gas density in the nuclear fusion device should be very low, which can only be equivalent to tens of thousands of parts of the gas density under normal temperature and pressure, and the restriction of energy should be long enough. In other words, we cannot simply simulate the high plasma density and hundreds of millions of temperatures in the center of the sun. We have to pursue a higher temperature than the center of the sun to solve the problem of collision probability. We can imagine the technical difficulty of creating such a harsh environment. In addition, ultra-high temperature plasma has the characteristics of strong outward expansion, and there must be a strong magnetic field to restrain them, and they must not be in contact with the surrounding container walls. Imagine, what kind of material can be loaded into the "sun" without itself vanishingIn the second half of the 20th century, great progress has been made in the research of fusion energy, and the research of Tokamak type magnetic confinement is leading all the way, and has become the design basis of the world's first thermonuclear reactor
made into a container that can hold the "sun"
what is the Tokamak that can put tens of millions, hundreds of millions of degrees Celsius high-temperature fusion material and -- artificial sun into it
Tokamak is a combination of "ring", "vacuum", "magnetic" and "coil" in Russian, which is the abbreviation of circulating magnetic vacuum chamber
the famous Soviet physicist Tam, who won the 1958 Nobel Prize in physics for his successful interpretation of Cherenkov radiation, proposed the idea of using a strong annular magnetic field to constrain high-temperature plasma as early as the early 1950s
he believes that combining the polar magnetic field generated by strong current with the annular magnetic field is expected to achieve the magnetic confinement of high-temperature plasma. Inspired by this idea, the former Soviet physicist achimovich began the research of this device. At first, they covered the annular ceramic vacuum chamber with multi turn coils, and used the capacitor discharge to form an annular magnetic field in the vacuum chamber. At the same time, the transformer is used to discharge, so that the plasma current generates a polar magnetic field. Later, the stainless steel vacuum chamber was used to replace the ceramic vacuum chamber, the process of the coil was improved, the number of turns was increased, and the magnetic field configuration was improved. Finally, a high temperature plasma magnetic confinement device was successfully built. Azimovich named this doughnut shaped annular container Toka, focusing on the cold rolling and continuous galvanizing project of Anyang Steel Group, the 300000 ton annual nodular cast pipe project of Anyang Steel Yongtong, and the silicon steel plate production line of Anyang Steel Group; Rely on Angang, Fengbao and Shagang Yongxing to build a production line with an annual output of 500000 tons of high-speed railway steel, automobile gear steel, alloy spring steel and bearing steel bars; Relying on Henan Fengbao pipe industry, HSBC pipe industry, Longteng special steel and other marks
the appearance of Tokamak with peculiar rotating magnetic field configuration has made great progress in the study of controlled nuclear fusion. Since the 1970s, there has been a worldwide upsurge of Tokamak research. Four large tokamaks were built in the United States, Europe, Japan and the Soviet Union. After the first small Tokamak ct-6 was put into operation in 1975, the Institute of physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences built China circulation 1 (HL-1) in June 1984. In December, 2002, China circulator 2 A was completed and put into operation at Southwest Institute of physics of Chengdu nuclear industry
at present, more than 30 countries and regions around the world have carried out nuclear fusion research, and at least dozens of Tokamak devices are in operation
needless to say, ITER plan is still in the preparation and initial stage, and the place where the sun takes off is still stacked mountains. However, meeting challenges is an important driving force for human progress. We have reason to believe that in the near future, fusion elites from all over the world will live up to their mission and create a sun in the Tokamak to show you
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